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Perth was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony.
It gained city status (currently vested in the smaller City of Perth) in 1856, and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929.
This was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for a number of large mining operations located around the state.
As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia.
Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth include Fremantle and Joondalup.
The city is named after Perth, Scotland, due to the influence of Sir George Murray, then Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies.